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World

General Information

TGlobally, the 20th century was marked by: (a) two devastating world wars; (b) the Great Depression of the 1930s; (c) the end of vast colonial empires; (d) rapid advances in science and technology, from the first airplane flight at Kitty Hawk, North Carolina (US) to the landing on the moon; (e) the Cold War between the Western alliance and the Warsaw Pact nations; (f) a sharp rise in living standards in North America, Europe, and Japan; (g) increased concerns about the environment, including loss of forests, shortages of energy and water, the decline in biological diversity, and air pollution; (h) the onset of the AIDS epidemic; and (i) the ultimate emergence of the US as the only world superpower. The planet's population continues to explode: from 1 billion in 1820, to 2 billion in 1930, 3 billion in 1960, 4 billion in 1974, 5 billion in 1988, and 6 billion in 2000. For the 21st century, the continued exponential growth in science and technology raises both hopes (e.g., advances in medicine) and fears (e.g., development of even more lethal weapons of war).

Geographic overview

The surface of the earth is approximately 70.9% water and 29.1% land. The former portion is divided into large water bodies termed oceans. The World Factbook recognizes and describes five oceans, which are in decreasing order of size: the Pacific Ocean, Atlantic Ocean, Indian Ocean, Southern Ocean, and Arctic Ocean. The land portion is generally divided into several, large, discrete landmasses termed continents. Depending on the convention used, the number of continents can vary from five to seven. The most common classification recognizes seven, which are (from largest to smallest): Asia, Africa, North America, South America, Antarctica, Europe, and Australia. Asia and Europe are sometimes lumped together into a Eurasian continent resulting in six continents. Alternatively, North and South America are sometimes grouped as simply the Americas, resulting in a continent total of six (or five, if the Eurasia designation is used). North America is commonly understood to include the island of Greenland, the isles of the Caribbean, and to extend south all the way to the Isthmus of Panama. The easternmost extent of Europe is generally defined as being the Ural Mountains and the Ural River; on the southeast the Caspian Sea; and on the south the Caucasus Mountains, the Black Sea, and the Mediterranean. Africa's northeast extremity is frequently delimited at the Isthmus of Suez, but for geopolitical purposes, the Egyptian Sinai Peninsula is often included as part Africa. Asia usually incorporates all the islands of the Philippines, Malaysia, and Indonesia. The islands of the Pacific are often lumped with Australia into a "land mass" termed Oceania or Australasia. Although the above groupings are the most common, different continental dispositions are recognized or taught in certain parts of the world, with some arrangements more heavily based on cultural spheres rather than physical geographic considerations.

Area, Land boundaries:

Total: 510.072 million sq km
Land: 148.94 million sq km
Water: 361.132 million sq km
Note: 70.9% of the world's surface is water, 29.1% is land
Land area about 16 times the size of the US
The land boundaries in the world total 251,060 km (not counting shared boundaries twice); two nations, China and Russia, each border 14 other countries note: 45 nations and other areas are landlocked, these include: Afghanistan, Andorra, Armenia, Austria, Azerbaijan, Belarus, Bhutan, Bolivia, Botswana, Burkina Faso, Burundi, Central African Republic, Chad, Czech Republic, Ethiopia, Holy See (Vatican City), Hungary, Kazakhstan, Kosovo, Kyrgyzstan, Laos, Lesotho, Liechtenstein, Luxembourg, Macedonia, Malawi, Mali, Moldova, Mongolia, Nepal, Niger, Paraguay, Rwanda, San Marino, Serbia, Slovakia, Swaziland, Switzerland, Tajikistan, Turkmenistan, Uganda, Uzbekistan, West Bank, Zambia, Zimbabwe; two of these, Liechtenstein and Uzbekistan, are doubly landlocked.

Coastline:

The coastline is 356,000 km touching 94 nations and other entities are islands that border no other countries, they include: American Samoa, Anguilla, Antigua and Barbuda, Aruba, Ashmore and Cartier Islands, The Bahamas, Bahrain, Baker Island, Barbados, Bermuda, Bouvet Island, British Indian Ocean Territory, British Virgin Islands, Cape Verde, Cayman Islands, Christmas Island, Clipperton Island, Cocos (Keeling) Islands, Comoros, Cook Islands, Coral Sea Islands, Cuba, Cyprus, Dominica, Falkland Islands (Islas Malvinas), Faroe Islands, Fiji, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, Greenland, Grenada, Guam, Guernsey, Heard Island and McDonald Islands, Howland Island, Iceland, Isle of Man, Jamaica, Jan Mayen, Japan, Jarvis Island, Jersey, Johnston Atoll, Kingman Reef, Kiribati, Madagascar, Maldives, Malta, Marshall Islands, Martinique, Mauritius, Mayotte, Federated States of Micronesia, Midway Islands, Montserrat, Nauru, Navassa Island, New Caledonia, New Zealand, Niue, Norfolk Island, Northern Mariana Islands, Palau, Palmyra Atoll, Paracel Islands, Philippines, Pitcairn Islands, Puerto Rico, Reunion, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Helena, Saint Kitts and Nevis, Saint Lucia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines, Samoa, Sao Tome and Principe, Seychelles, Singapore, Solomon Islands, South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands, Spratly Islands, Sri Lanka, Svalbard, Tokelau, Tonga, Trinidad and Tobago, Turks and Caicos Islands, Tuvalu, Vanuatu, Virgin Islands, Wake Island, Wallis and Futuna, Taiwan.

Elevation extremes

Lowest point: Bentley Subglacial Trench -2,540 m note: in the oceanic realm, Challenger Deep in the Mariana Trench is the lowest point, lying -10,924 m below the surface of the Pacific Ocean highest point: Mount Everest 8,850 m.

Natural resources, environment

The rapid depletion of nonrenewable mineral resources, the depletion of forest areas and wetlands, the extinction of animal and plant species, and the deterioration in air and water quality (especially in Eastern Europe, the former USSR, and China) pose serious long-term problems that governments and peoples are only beginning to address.

Religions

Christians 33.32% (of which Roman Catholics 16.99%, Protestants 5.78%, Orthodox 3.53%, Anglicans 1.25%), Muslims 21.01%, Hindus 13.26%, Buddhists 5.84%, Sikhs 0.35%, Jews 0.23%, Baha'is 0.12%, other religions 11.78%, non-religious 11.77%, atheists 2.32% (2007 est.) .

Languages

Mandarin Chinese 13.22%, Spanish 4.88%, English 4.68%, Arabic 3.12%, Hindi 2.74%, Portuguese 2.69%, Bengali 2.59%, Russian 2.2%, Japanese 1.85%, Standard German 1.44%, French 1.2% (2005 est.) note: percents are for "first language" speakers only.

Literacy

Tdefinition: age 15 and over can read and write total population: 82%
male: 87%
female: 77%

Note: over two-thirds of the world's 785 million illiterate adults are found in only eight countries (India, China, Bangladesh, Pakistan, Nigeria, Ethiopia, Indonesia, and Egypt); of all the illiterate adults in the world, two-thirds are women; extremely low literacy rates are concentrated in three regions, South and West Asia, Sub-Saharan Africa, and the Arab states, where around one-third of the men and half of all women are illiterate (2005 est.)

Nations, Dependant Areas

266 nations, dependent areas, and other entities.

Economy - overview

TGlobal output rose by 5.2% in 2007, led by China (11.4%), India (9.2%), and Russia (8.1%). The 14 other successor nations of the USSR and the other old Warsaw Pact nations again experienced widely divergent growth rates; the three Baltic nations continued as strong performers, in the 8%-10% range of growth. From 2006 to 2007 growth rates slowed in all the major industrial countries except for the United Kingdom (3.1%). Analysts attribute the slowdown to uncertainties in the financial markets and lowered consumer confidence. Worldwide, nations varied widely in their growth results. Externally, the nation-state, as a bedrock economic-political institution, is steadily losing control over international flows of people, goods, funds, and technology. Internally, the central government often finds its control over resources slipping as separatist regional movements - typically based on ethnicity - gain momentum, e.g., in many of the successor states of the former Soviet Union, in the former Yugoslavia, in India, in Iraq, in Indonesia, and in Canada. Externally, the central government is losing decisionmaking powers to international bodies, notably the EU. In Western Europe, governments face the difficult political problem of channeling resources away from welfare programs in order to increase investment and strengthen incentives to seek employment.

The addition of 80 million people each year to an already overcrowded globe is exacerbating the problems of pollution, desertification, underemployment, epidemics, and famine. Because of their own internal problems and priorities, the industrialized countries devote insufficient resources to deal effectively with the poorer areas of the world, which, at least from an economic point of view, are becoming further marginalized. The introduction of the euro as the common currency of much of Western Europe in January 1999, while paving the way for an integrated economic powerhouse, poses economic risks because of varying levels of income and cultural and political differences among the participating nations.

The terrorist attacks on the US on 11 September 2001 accentuated a growing risk to global prosperity, illustrated, for example, by the reallocation of resources away from investment to anti-terrorist programs. The opening of war in March 2003 between a US-led coalition and Iraq added new uncertainties to global economic prospects. After the initial coalition victory, the complex political difficulties and the high economic cost of establishing domestic order in Iraq became major global problems that continued through 2008.

Help building a better World

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Trafficking in persons

Current situation: approximately 800,000 people, mostly women and children, are trafficked annually across national borders, not including millions trafficked within their own countries; at least 80% of the victims are female and up to 50% are minors; 75% of all victims are trafficked into commercial sexual exploitation; almost two-thirds of the global victims are trafficked intra-regionally within East Asia and the Pacific (260,000 to 280,000 people) and Europe and Eurasia (170,000 to 210,000 people).

Tier 2 Watch List: Albania, Argentina, Armenia, Azerbaijan, Bahrain, Burundi, Cameroon, Central African Republic, Chad, China, Costa Rica, Cote d'Ivoire, Cyprus, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Dominican Republic, Egypt, Equatorial Guinea, Gabon, The Gambia, Guatemala, Guinea, Guinea-Bissau, Guyana, India, Jordan, Libya, Malaysia, Montenegro, Mozambique, Niger, Panama, Republic of the Congo, Russia, South Africa, Sri Lanka, Tajikistan, Uzbekistan, Venezuela, Zambia, Zimbabwe.

Tier 3: Algeria, Burma, Cuba, Fiji, Iran, Kuwait, Moldova, North Korea, Oman, Papua New Guinea, Qatar, Saudi Arabia, Sudan, Syria (2008) .


Help building a better world  A   Afghanistan  Akrotiri  Albania  Algeria  American Samoa  American Virgin Islands  Andorra  Angola  Anguilla  Antarctica  Antigua and Barbuda  Argentina  Armenia  Aruba  Ashmore and Cartier Islands  Atlantic Ocean  Australia  Austria  Azerbaijan    B   Bahamas  Bahrain  Baker Island  Bangladesh  Barbados  Belarus  Belgium  Belize  Benin  Bermuda  Bhutan  Bolivia  Bosnia-Herzegovina  Botswana  Bouvet Island  Brazil  British Virgin Islands  Brunei Darussalam  Bulgaria  Burkina Faso  Burma  Burundi     C   Cambodia  Cameroon  Canada  Cape Verde  Cayman Island s  Central African Republic  Chad  Chile  China  Christmas Island  Clipperton Island  Cocos Keeling Islands  Colombia  Comoros  Congo Democratic Republic  Congo Republic  Cook Islands  Coral Sea Islands  Costa Rica  Croatia  Cuba  Cyprus  Czech Republic     D   Denmark  Dhekelia  Djibouti  Dominica  Dominican Republic     E   Ecuador  Egypt  El Salvador  Equatorial Guinea  Eritrea  Estonia  Ethiopia    F   Faeroe Islands  Falkland Islands  Fiji Island  Finland  France  French Polynesia  French Southern and Antarctic Lands    G   Gabon  Gambia  Gaza Strip  Georgia  Germany  Ghana  Gibraltar  Greece  Greenland  Grenada  Guam  Guatemala  Guernsey  Guinea  Guinea-Bissau  Guyana    H   Haiti  Heard Island and McDonald Islands  Honduras  Hong Kong  Howland Island  Hungary    I    Iceland  India  Indian Ocean  Indian Ocean Territory Brithish  Indonesia  Iraq  Iran  Ireland    Isle of Man  Israel  Italy  Ivory Coast    J   Jamaica  Jan Mayen  Japan  Jarvis Island  Jersey  Johnston Atoll  Jordan  Juan de Nova Island    K   Kazakhstan  Kenya  Kingman Reef  Kiribati-Gilbert Islands  Kosovo  Kuwait  Kyrgyzstan    L   Laos  Latvia  Lebanon  Lesotho  Liberia  Libya  Liechtenstein  Lithuania  Luxembourg    M   Macau  Macedonia  Madagascar  Malawi  Malaysia  Maldives  Mali  Malta  Marshall Islands  Mauritania  Mauritius  Mayotte  Mexico  Micronesia  Midway Islands  Moldova  Monaco  Mongolia  Montenegro  Montserrat  Morocco  Mozambique    N   Namibia  Nauru  Navassa Island  Nepal  Netherlands  Netherlands Antilles  New Caledonia French  New Zealand  Nicaragua  Niger  Nigeria  Niue  Norfolk Island  North Korea  Northern Mariana Islands  Norway    O   Oman    P   Pacific Ocean  Pakistan  Palau  Palmyra Atoll  Panama  Papua New Guinea  Paraguay  Peru  Philippines  Pitcairn Islands  Poland  Portugal  Puerto Rico    Q   Qatar    R  Romania  Russian Federation  Rwanda    S   Saint Barthelemy  Saint Helena  Saint Kitts and Nevis  Saint Lucia  Saint Martin  Saint Pierre and Michelon  Saint Vincent and the Grenadines  Samoa Islands  San Marino  Sao Tome and Principe  Saudi Arabia  Serbia  Senegal  Seychelles  Sierra Leone  Singapore  Slovak Republic  Slovenia  Solomon  Somalia  South Africa  South Georgia Islands  South Korea  South Sandwich Islands  Southern Ocean  Spain  Spratly Islands  Sri Lanka  Sudan  Suriname  Svalbard  Swaziland  Sweden  Switzerland  Syria    T   Taiwan  Tajikistan  Tanzania  Thailand  Timor-Leste  Togo  Tokelau  Tonga  Trinidad and Tobago  Tunisia  Turkey  Turkmenistan  Turks and Caicos  Tuvalu    U   Uganda  Ukraine  United Arab Emirates  United Kingdom  United States of America  Uruguay  Uzbekistan    V   Vanuatu  Vatican City  Venezuela  Vietnam    W   Wake Island  Wallis and Futuna  West Bank  Western Sahara  World    Y   Yemen    Z   Zambia  Zimbabwe